Thursday, July 16, 2020
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Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2302 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? In the primary Articles of the Agreement of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) which set up the Fund in July 1944 neither the term structural adjustment nor the term conditionality can be found. Conditionality was explicitly incorporated into the IMF when the Articles of Agreement were amended in 1968. Henceforward Article V Section 3 states that The Fund shall adopt policies on the use of its general resources, including policies on stand-by or similar arrangements, and may adopt special policies for special balance of payments problems, that will assist members to solve their balance of payments problemsÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Conditionality And The International Monetary Fund Mandate Finance Essay" essay for you Create order However, even before conditionality was explicit in the IMF mandate the Fund used to practice a sort of conditionality from its beginning. For instance, after the IMF made its first loan to France in 1947, they refused another loan for France in 1948 because the Fund did not accept the French exchange rate policies. But also in the early years conditionality was officially announced and Stand-by Arrangements were introduced by the Fund. On February 13th 1952 the Executive Board decided that Fund resources should be used to help members provided the policies the members will pursue will be adequate to overcome the problem. However, in the early years conditions were fewer in number and less detailed whereby this policy has come to be called macro-conditionality. Usually these conditions included cutting the government budget deficit, reducing the money supply and sometimes the devaluation of the national currency. Although the Fund configured the essential policy, governme nts had a lot of room in how they could achieve the macro-economic targets of IMF arrangements. The rationality of conditionality is to prevent the possibility of what economists call a moral hazard. Moral hazard occurs when a party insulated from risk may behave differently than it would behave if it were fully exposed to the risk. Because IMF loans can be seen as a sort of insurance against the risk of a balance of payments crisis a moral hazard could occur when governments know that the insurance entity here the IMF will pay in any event, even if they operate an irresponsible economic policy. As in 1982 a deep financial crisis arose in Latin America due to excessive public sector borrowing the IMF was faced with considerable critics because countries of this region had participated in more IMF programmes than any other in the world. The official IMF response was that not the general policy was wrong but that the programs had not gone deep enough. Thus, the IMF began to enforce more detailed policies which not only include fiscal and monetary targets, but also targets for international reserves, limitations of foreign debt, a prohibition against import restrictions, further provisions for trade liberalization, as well as conditions calling for privatization and deregulation of labour laws. Therefore the Fund not only said that the balance has to be restored but moreover, how the government has to react specifically. This level of detail of IMF programme conditions is also called structural adjustment or micro-conditionality. Polak (1991) analyses that the averag e number of conditions increased from below six in the late 1960s, to seven in the late 1970s to over nine in the late 1980s. Then, as Bird reports, the average number of conditions per IMF arrangements increased to 9.9 in 1993, 10.5 in 1994, 11 in 1995, 13.0 in 1996 and 16 in 1997. So over time, the policy conditions contained in IMF arrangements became much more specific. But also the micro-conditional policy came under attack in the aftermath of the East Asian financial crisis which started in 1997 and attached nearly every county in this region. Commentators pointed out that IMF conditionality had gone too far in the opposite direction of macro-conditionality and were too specific. Interestingly the response of the Fund this time was a reversal of the trend backwards to a reduced conditionality again. The IMF uses the term ownership which means that participating countries should take more part in elaborating and implementing the conditions. Despite the changes the IMF has made in defining conditionality since its beginning the basic approach to economic problems has not changed. The Fund still includes conditions which intend to lower the consumption of imported goods and thus, the arrangements require governments to reduce public spending, raise interest rates and taxes or devaluing the domestic currency in order to raise the prices of imports and make exports more competitive. Therefore conditionality is still controversial and the question is if the IMF policy of conditionality needs further changes. To answer this question it is essential to examine what the effects of IMF conditionality are. From this result a conclusion may be drawn to what extent IMF policy should be modified. 2. Effects of IMF programmes There is a huge amount of data about the IMF programme since the 1950s. In total the official data from the Fund covers 199 countries for a total of 1,132 observations to date. In theory there should be a clear picture about the effectiveness of IMF programmes, but despite the wealth of data researchers have found different results. The reason is mainly that different statistical approaches were used in the studies and their choice is often contended. Nevertheless, there exist remarkable studies about the impact of IMF programmes on various parameters. Important indicators are balance of payments, inflation, budget deficits economic growth, income distribution and social spending. a. Effects on the balance of payments According to the Articles of Agreement one of the most important tasks of the IMF is it to help members solving problems in their balance of payments. Deficits in the balance of payment arise when a country is taking in more imports or fixed assets or capital than it is generating through exports. The IMF tries with its conditional loan to cut the domestic demand for imports and foreign finance in order to adjust the balance of payments through the mechanisms previously discussed. Pastor (1987) examined the impact of IMF programmes in Latin American countries in the period from 1965 to 1981. He found a statistically significant positive effect of IMF conditional loans on the balance of payments. Killick et al. (1992) also noticed in their study about the participation of Latin American countries in IMF programmes a statistically significant positive impact on the balance of payments. In an extensive study of 69 countries from 1973 to 1987 Gylfason (1987) also found a statistically significant positive effect of IMF programmes on the balance of payments. Khan came to the same result in his study from 1990and Conway (1994) in his paper which observed 74 countries from 1976 to 1986. The only study which actually found a negative impact was conducted by IMF economists Goldstein and Montiel (1986). So the majority of studies using various methods and data have found that IMF programmes have a positive effect on the balance of payments. b. Effects on inflation and budget deficits According to the IMF, fiscal adjustment and stable prices are one of the core elements of macroeconomic design in IMF programmes. Killick et al. (1992) as well as Conway have found that IMF programmes have a statistically significant positive effect on the budget deficit. Steinwand and Stone (2008) reviewed 22 studies on the relationship between inflation and IMF programmes. However, his review does not provide a clear picture. Six studies found no effect, ten studies report that inflation decreases but without a statistically significant effect. Three studies in the review noticed a statistically significant negative effect, and three studies report that inflation increases, even if the effect is not statistically significant. The result implies that either IMF conditionality does not effectively address inflation or governments fail to comply with the conditions of the IMF. Also a combination of both options seems possible. c. Effects on economic growth Although economic growth is not explicit stated in the IMF Agreementthe IMF regards economic growth as a key goal of its policy. The First Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors in 1946 already defined growth as a function of the fund when they declared that the Fund should aid members in maintaining arrangements that promote the balanced expansion of international trade and investment and this way contribute to the maintenance of high levels of employment and real income. But there is only weak evidence that the IMF has been successful in promoting the growth of the participating country. A review on early studies about the impact of IMF programmes on economic growth was published by the IMF in 2001. Out of nine studies from 1978 to 1995 covering different countries, regions, and programme-lengths, only one reported a significant positive effect. Four studies have found no effect; two reported a statistically insignificant effect and one reported an insignificant e ffect. Recent studies even show that IMF conditionality programmes have a significant negative effect on economic growth. This is result is supported by studies from Kahn (1990), Conway (1994), Dicks-Mireaux et al. (2000), Przeworski and Vreeland (2000), Hutchison et al. (2003)and Dreher (2006). Thus, the newly emerging scientific consensus is that IMF programmes hurt economic growth. d. Income distribution and social spending An Evaluation Report from 2003 published by the IMF Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) considered 146 countries from 1985 to 2000 and examined how IMF programmes impact the poor, such as spending on health and education. One result of the study was that governments not only did not cut such spending but the paper also indicates that IMF programmes let governments decide to increase their education and health budget An IEO study from 2004 confirmed this conclusion. However, Nooruddin and Simmons (2006) found that while the overall effect of IMF programmes on health and education spending is positive, the impact is not statistically significant. Moreover, the authors actually pointed out that for democratic countries the impact on health and education expenditures were negative. Three studies deal with the question if IMF programmes increase income inequality. Despite using different methodologies and data they all came to the same result that IMF conditionality programmes have caused a rise in income inequality. In a study about the income in Latin America under IMF programmes between 1965 and 1981 Pastor (1987) concluded that the single most consistent effect the IMF seems to have is the redistribution of income away from workers. In a cross country analysis also Garuda (2000) found that IMF programmes exacerbate income inequality. To the same conclusion came Vreeland (2002) who looked at the earnings in the manufacturing sector of 110 participating countries from 1961 to 1993. 3. Changes to IMF policies As the mentioned studies show IMF conditional programmes do not have the success they should have. Therefore it seems to be necessary to think about how the IMF can achieve better results. One well-known critic is Nobel Prize laureate and former chief economist and senior vice president at the World Bank Joseph Stiglitz. In his view the major problem that the IMF failed in so many cases is its conditionality policy. The IMF recipe of liberalisation, deregulation and fiscal austerity is counterproductive because under economic crisis such policy can increase unemployment and deepen the crisis. Stiglitz also points out that an industrialised country which is faced with an economic crisis do exactly the opposite of the conditionality policy which the IMF claims from its supported countries. So for example when the United States faced an economic downturn in 2001, the debate was not whether there should be a stimulus package, but its design. Siglitzs standpoint is supported by th e reaction of the G-8 states to the current financial and economic crisis. In order to soften the biggest recession in the world since the Great Depression nearly every country has set up an enormous stimulus programme and governments as well as central banks accepted a rapidly increasing budget as well as the danger of high inflation due to a monetary policy of quantitative easing which finally means printing money without an economic growth. Under IMF conditionality such programmes would be unimaginable. Stiglitz concludes that the IMF probably acts more on the behalf of foreign investors and domestic elites at the expense of the poor than following economic rationality. Stiglitz argues the IMF conditionality should be reduced and the Fund should return to the mandate proposed by Keynes: providing funds to restore aggregate demand in countries facing economic recession. However, others authors like Thomas Willetargue that the reason for disappointing results of the IMF policy is not the conditionality itself but rather the problem has been one of compliance. If participating countries would comply more with the IMF conditions, the results would also improve. International governmental policies as well as the IMF itself should enforce the conditions set by the IMF more strictly. Vreeland points out that the US often prevents the IMF from enforcing conditionality if these countries are favoured by the US for political reasons. Even the Fund reacts to critics of its policies and has adapted its policy accordingly over time. It seems like the IMF is stuck in a battle between opposing viewpoints on conditionality. Perhaps, such problems are unavoidable for a global financial institution like the IMF but nevertheless it is obvious that conditionality is abused either by countries which are not interested in enforcing it or by countries which are not interested in a stable economic and social policy because they rely on a guaranteed IMF bailout.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
delicate so sensible that what is done to them at he beginning of their life can affect their development. This is the reason why the movie I selected for this assignment was a documentary called the Child of Rage. This documentary is about two children that were adopted by a couple. One was a boy named Eric and the other was a girl named Beth. They were both severely maltreated and had no mother. Their biological father neglected Eric and sexually abused Beth they were both withdrawn from this home at a very young age Beth two years old and Eric one, but even though they were removed at a very young age from this environment they both were left with psychological damage. Beth especially this is why the documentary is focused on her. Beth has no conscious, she does not feel bad for the horrible things she does to people and animals around her. She stabs her pets with needles kills animals around her home and she hits and harasses her brother at only age seven and she also has horribl e nightmares about her father. Her actions made her parents so afraid of her that they locked her in her room at night. They also took her to therapy were along side with the therapist they have to make Beth feel some sort of emotional pain or remorse for the things she is done their goal is to make her feel something, have emotions because she does not, she is too emotionally traumatized to feel anything. The end result is that she actually cries because she feels bad for the things she hasShow MoreRelatedProzac Nation Essay1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdepression and its consequences. In 2001, the book was adapted into a movie. The movie, starring then new actress, Christina Ricci, clearly illustrates the original bookÃ¢â¬â¢s main ideaÃ¢â¬â¢s (Prozac Nation, 2001). The movie also shines with excellent theatrical performances and a well-adapted screenplay. This report will discuss the effects of major depression on WurtzelÃ¢â¬â¢s life as illustrated in Ã¢â¬Å"Prozac Nation,Ã¢â¬ the movie. Furthermore, the development of WurtzelÃ¢â¬â¢s depression will be analyzed in detailRead MoreThe Bible As A Support For Slavery880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesslavery. Slavery refers to individuals that are owned by others, whom have full control of their excistance. As time passed by, slavery developed and was the cause of many conflicts. In the movie Twelve Years of Slave we can see how slavery builds the inferno everyone burns. In an analysis of the movie for Commmonweal magazine, Richard Alleva said, To suggest that slave owners suffered as much as slaves would be obscene. In the other hand, Frederick Douglass wrote, Slavery proved as injuriousRead MoreThe Child That Lives From Within1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFeijoÃ¢â¬â0884046 Professor Dr. Don Moore Reading and Writing Effectively AHSS 1210 21 November 2014 The Child that Lives from Within Introduction The social sciences often question if psychopathic behaviour is innate or a product of a social environment. Recently, nurture-based theories has gained credibility in understanding how a childÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringings can trigger psychopathic behaviour. In the movie Psycho by Alfred Hitchcock, Norman BatesÃ¢â¬â¢ downfall proposes how crucial a healthy childhood is to mentalRead MoreThe Child That Lives From Within1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1210 21 November 2014 The Child that Lives from Within The social sciences often question if psychopathic behaviour is innate or a product of social environment. The answer seems difficult to discern because it is not split down into equal parts of nurture and nature, but rather rely on one another for a better understanding. In the movie Psycho by Alfred Hitchcock, Norman BatesÃ¢â¬â¢ downfall proposes how crucial a healthy childhood is to the mental state of developing child. Contrary to nature focusedRead MoreFor This Film Analysis, I Viewed Two Movies. The Films1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages For this film analysis, I viewed two movies. The films viewed were Boys DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Cry and A Soap. The movies viewed had the common theme of sexuality. The 2 films both had themes regarding sexuality and trangenderism. With that my thesis is, Sexuality and its affects and reactions in regards to interpersonal and familial relationships. To begin we start we the film that was viewed first, Boys DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Cry. 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This area of concentration seems to have garnered more attention in recent years, as experts scramble to offer explanations and analysis for what appears to be a general decline in the moral fabric of American society, fueled by what appears to be a general coarsening of civility among certain segments of our population. Are more people simply being born with personality disordersRead MoreKick- Ass Rhetorical Analysis: Extraordinary Beings with Normal Abilities2167 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Every single comic fan has dreamed to be a superhero,Ã¢â¬ Mark Millar, creator of Kick-Ass comic states in his interview. Millar addresses the superhero fantas ies that the intended audience of the superhero action comic and movie Kick-Ass sometimes marveled at (Multipleverses). Dave Lizewski, the main protagonist of Kick-Ass, has a similar dream to the comicÃ¢â¬â¢s audience; he also wants to become a superhero. Dave is an average comic lover that turns into a superhero without the qualities many of theRead MoreVideo Games : Video Game Violence Essay1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Although video games have been available for more than 30 years, today s sophisticated video games require players to pay constant attention to the game. Players engage on a deeper levelÃ¢â¬âphysically and emotionallyÃ¢â¬âthan people do when watching a movie or television. Video games follow three guidelines to hook the player. These guidelines include a Ã¢â¬ËwowÃ¢â¬â¢ moment within the first five minutes of playing the game to grab the playerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, communicating the core value of the game, and creatingRead MoreEssay on Sociological Analysis of The Film Riding in Cars with Boys1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSociological Analysis of The Film Riding in Cars with Boys Beverly, the main character of Ã¢â¬Å"Riding in Cars With BoysÃ¢â¬ fell into the categories of heterosexual, female. 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I had detention because some of my so called friends told the teacher I did it when I never. I was on my way home when I heard something smash therefore I went nearer to the source of the sound. It was leading me to a dark deserted old alley. We will write a custom essay sample on English Original Writing Ã¢â¬â The Slime or any similar topic only for you Order Now At any rate this way was quicker to my house so I strolled down. I never used to go home this way since my mum said not to for the reason that bad things happened to her when she went through the alley. The thought of the scream made me shiver and I felt a tingle down my spine. I heard the leaves crisp as I toddled along the footpath. The street was isolated I could even hear my self breathing. My stomach was churning so thus, I felt I was going to be sick. There it was I saw it, I was amazed of the features it had. He came closer and closer. It looked like he was horrified and his face was turning blue, pale blue. He made another impulsive move towards me and vomited. I felt the puke on my injured car bonnet. The bonnet got injured due to a hit and run ten minuets a go. The Schoolboy strolled towards the shimmering door and went inside me. He opened my shirt pocket gradually. He saw a creepy look in the mirror which gave a different image. I felt sick so I puked on the car. I hurried into the car and my eye was caught on this compartment, so therefore looked inside the box. I was shocked to see my self look like this. So I ran out of the motor vehicle, the engine was still running. I found out what made the crash it was this car so me and my conscience started to clean the vomit. I decided to restore it to its previous pristine condition as a mark of respect to the decease inhabitant of the car. He started to clean me additionally I started to undergo a feeling I have never felt before, cleanliness it felt so nice. He walked away from me but from my view I could see a silhouette following his every move. Something was saying to me go back the car or someone may need my help. I turned round ambled to the car. The carÃ¢â¬â¢s engine went off I believed to think the battery ran out. The cars door opened, thus made my heart pound, erstwhile I was thinking the car was calling me in. I took the weight off my feet and the cars engine turned back on and the cars doors and front bonnet and rear bonnet were clanging and horning, it made me jump. I could not believe my eyes no one come out or looked to see what that noise was. I saw a house. I was very curious to see the house. He gathered the courage to go into the gloomy dark house. He walked through the front door and plodded up the stairs. He looked around; I went inside a mansion. I saw a bathroom door open. The bathroom was covered in slime. The sink was bubbling slime; the floor was flooding slimy slipper sludgy slime. I tried to run back out but the door slammed shut in my face so there fore I went for the window that too slammed shut. The house was flooding green slime. I was scared and could see my future passing through my eyes. Then suddenly I heard an engine start. There was slime coming out through the panes of the window and the door. I heard banging, I thought it was the boy, I was thinking should I go in. I was drowning in slime I did not know what to do. The gunk was going in my mouth and I had to breathe through my nose I had a few seconds left. I was thinking. Then it came to me ill ram the car into the house so I rammed it. I saw a bright light. I thought I was gone, but when I heard a bang I saw the car I owed my life to a realistic car. How to cite English Original Writing Ã¢â¬â The Slime, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
There are a number of professionals that come into contact with each other if a child has needs with speech, language and communication and require support from different areas. E. g. a social worker, SEN Officer, teacher and parent can work together to improve the life of a child or young person. They may come together to discuss a plan that is best for the child to progress effectively. Each child may have different professionals to tailor their individual needs. The people with specialist knowledge and skills will support the people that work with them on a daily basis and have regular meetings to remove barriers of achievement, agree strategies, provide training and identify, and sometimes provide resources. SENCO have the correct paper work in place and ensure appointments are up to date, this will make it easy to monitor development. This will help to co-ordinate with professionals who work with the child. We will write a custom essay sample on Multi agency teams or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The LEA decides between the school and external support services on how to support the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development and may arrange the intervention of a school action plus level to be provided. It also has a parent partnership so parents can be heard and understood with their views taken into account. Every child matters is a programme that covers all children in the school age 0-19. It has been set up so that schools and parents work together to give very child the best chance on life. It has a shared database of children containing information of every child so that all multi agencies, schools, police and voluntary groups can ensure the welfare of each child and can be assessed.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Issues Surrounding The Treatment Of Patients Social Work Essays Issues Surrounding The Treatment Of Patients Social Work Essay Issues Surrounding The Treatment Of Patients Social Work Essay Health Services for Peoples with Learning Disabilities ( Department of Health, 1992 ) and Mental Health: National Service Framework, ( Department of Health, 1999 ) , The common subjects and issues that underpin this policy construction, include: advancing collaborative working between mainstream mental wellness services and specialist acquisition disablement services ; leting people with larning disablements to entree mainstream mental wellness services wherever possible but making little specializer inmate services for those whose demands can non be met by mainstream services, implementing a changing function for specializer larning disablement services to supplying support and facilitation for mainstream services including supplying mainstream mental wellness and attention staff with equal preparation on the demands of people with learning disablement ; using a attention programme attack for people with learning disablement and mental wellness jobs and making mental wellness publi city stuffs which are made accessible for people with a learning disablement. Advice is available to assist care suppliers and staff support people with larning disablements in accessing mainstream mental wellness attention scenes ( Hardy et al, 2006 ) . The Green light toolkit ( Foundation for People with larning disablements et Al, 2004 ) is one illustration of a counsel papers that demonstrates how policy construction and specific policies are being implemented in pattern. It is used throughout England as an audit tool to mensurate how the National Service Framework for mental wellness ( Department of Health, 1999 ) is being implemented for people with learning disablements. The toolkit provides a gilded criterion that can be used by local mainstream mental wellness services to mensurate services against. It offers a traffic visible radiation hiting system and provides counsel on how services can be improved, covering countries such as local partnerships, planning, accessing services, attention planning and work force planning. After a green light toolkit a ppraisal, each local country should develop an betterment program from the action points identified and have a clip frame to implement the necessary alterations. Anecdotal grounds from observations in pattern suggest that the green light tool kit is still being used in pattern today but similar countries for betterment are identified clip and clip once more such as entree to wellness promotional stuffs in apprehensible formats. This would propose that although appraisals of services are being undertaken the results of these appraisals and action points are non being carried frontward into pattern. The Disability Rights Commission ( Disability rights committee, 2006 ) supports this position by stating that old counsel paperss intended to assist people with larning disablements gain entree to mainstream wellness services have had limited consequence. A working group from the royal montage of head-shrinkers ( Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1996 ) acknowledged that enabling people with larning disablements to entree mainstream mental wellness services can be a complex and demanding undertaking necessitating input from specializers in the psychopathology of larning disablement. To react to this statement they have advocated two rules for the mental wellness nursing of people with larning disablements: joint working between mental wellness and larning disablement squads with the usage of Mainstream psychiatric installations at every possible chance every bit good as emphasizing that commissariats for specializer services are still to be available if needed. The independent authorities enquiry instigated by Death by Indifference ( Mencap, 2007 ) , while non widening to mental wellness services, promoted research into the experiences reported by people with larning disablements of acute mental wellness units. This provides a assorted image. The negative experiences are similar to concerns expressed by other patients. These include: deficiency of control and information ; larceny of belongings ; intimidating multi disciplinary meetings ; hapless nutrient and hapless attention. However the presence of larning disablements may change their significance for illustration, service users with larning disablements may happen it harder to understand information about their admittance and intervention, unless it is shared in a format which is appropriate to their cognitive and communicating accomplishments. Psychotropic medicine may farther impair already hapless cognitive operation and may stand for an extra restriction on persons capacity to und erstand and take an active portion in their intervention. Relatives and paid carers are likely to hold a much more important and long-standing function in back uping the service user than would be the instance with other grownups with mental wellness jobs, Often a individual with a acquisition disablement has specific modus operandis that merely person near like a carer would cognize and following these modus operandis can do nursing them much easier. this is something to which mainstream services in peculiar seem to pay small attending. Not emphasizing engagement with carers in peculiar with a client from this group can take to either a deficiency of support for carers or carers experiencing pushed away by services and left without a function which in itself can take to the presentation of depression and low temper in the carer. ( Scior and Longo, 2005 ) Finally, the hazard that marks and symptoms of mental wellness jobs will be misattributed to a individual s acquisition disableme nt ( diagnostic overshadowing ) is specific to this group. These issues need to be considered by practicians nevertheless, grounds indicates that healthcare professionals frequently lack the cognition, accomplishments and experience necessary to run into the health care needs of people with learning disablements. ( Fraser, 1999 ) The Royal College of Nursing ( Royal College of Nursing, 2008 ) commented that the recent development of an outlook of the mainstream mental wellness services to react to the demands of the bulk of people with larning disablements and co-morbid mental unwellness has frequently proved an unrealistic end for the mental wellness nurse. It has been proven that particular expertness and preparation every bit good as the usage of specialist mental wellness squads are required for the appraisal, diagnosing and intervention of mental unwellness in the acquisition handicapped population. Although it is theoretically possible to develop staff in mainstream scenes, the little figure of instances gives small chance for staff in the assorted subjects to derive the necessary accomplishments. Additionally, mainstream mental wellness staff frequently feel that caring for this group of vulnerable people is non portion of their function, and the resources of big mental wellness services are already stretched ( Day, 1988 ) . The support deductions that arose from such a monolithic displacement in service duty that came out of the execution of the mainstreaming attack neer seem to hold been adequately addressed ( Bouras et al, 1995 ) Collaborative working between professional groups in health care is critical across the board for bettering criterions of attention for patients and their carers ( Pollard,2004 ) . In relation to this professional competitions between mental wellness and larning disablements squads are common and the apprehension of each other s function is hapless taking to chiefly uneffective collaborative working ( Bouras et al, 1995 ) There has besides been no evident or unequivocal dialogue between the two service squads in the UK to develop clear local operational policies or service understandings and merely obscure definitions of who is entitled to entree which service exist, which can sometimes take to a patient having inappropriate intervention, being bounced between services or, in rare instances, even being denied attention wholly as neither squad is willing to take duty for that patients attention. Distinguishing between psychiatric upsets and behavioral issues in people with larning disablements is non ever a straightforward procedure. Both empirical and conceptual issues associating to the nature of such behavioral upsets question both the cogency and dependability of a diagnosing of mental unwellness in a individual who has a learning disablement ( Krose et Al, 2000 ) This raises the inquiry what does a nurse dainty foremost? As with double diagnosing of a drug dependence and mental unwellness, in many instances the drug job needs to be tackled foremost before the full extent of the mental unwellness can be seen ( Drake,2007 ) .However, with a learning disablement this is non a possibility as a acquisition disablement is a long standing status that can non be treated. The inquiry is hence, is the behavior being exhibited by a patient due to their mental wellness jobs or the learning disablement? When a individual with a acquisition disablement requires admittance to hospital due to a psychiatric unwellness, the first aim is to hold on whether the general or learning disablement head-shrinker acts as the responsible clinician. The admittance of a individual with larning disablement frequently happens as a last resort in response to an exigency that can non be managed elsewhere such as in the community or via the usage or reprieve services. The community larning disablement squad should be able to offer some preparation to nursing staff or even transport out specific pieces of work straight with the patient. The allotment of a named nurse is highly of import and, if available, person with particular accomplishments or involvement should be appointed in order to develop a more effectual curative confederation with the patient. The increased exposure of people with larning disablements to mistreat even during admittance should be considered and protection from this possible hazard given. This may necessitate to be in the signifier of separation from high-risk patients or an increased degree of nursing observation such as is policy with under 18s admitted to adult acute psychiatric units. In all instances, the importance of coaction with the acquisition disablement squad should be stressed. This becomes peculiarly of import during discharge planning. In the scenario of an admittance under a Mental Health Section, people with learning disablement and mental wellness jobs are entitled to all the commissariats of the Care Programme Approach and Section 117 after-care. It is besides indispensable that mental wellness nurses have a good working cognition of mental wellness jurisprudence and statute law. Experiences from clinical pattern have demonstrated that frequently mental wellness statute law is misused or disregarded for people with co morbid acquisition disablements which denies them the precautions and protection of the jurisprudence that statute law such as the mental wellness act was designed to set in topographic point ( Mental Health Act, 1983 ) . The relevant statute law should be applied to this group of people if and when it is appropriate to make so and the same classs of detainment used as for other persons sing mental sick wellness. Although it is of import to observe that a individual with a learning disablement can still be sectioned if it is deemed they behave abnormally sharply or earnestly irresponsibly, without any marks of mental unwellness it is hence of import to find that that there be existent mental wellness jobs presen t if a individual is admitted under subdivision to a mainstream mental wellness infirmary. Assessment is a specific portion of the nursing procedure where mental wellness nurses can fight when covering with people with larning disablements For illustration, The Mental State Examination, which constitutes an indispensable constituent of the preparation procedure and is indispensable for measuring hazard and explicating a intervention program, may be debatable. This could be for a figure of grounds, including high rates of conformity or an avidity to delight in certain interview state of affairss ( Sigelman et al, 1982 ) . Moss argues that people with learning disablements are besides less likely to kick or near members of staff to inquire for aid which may farther perplex the Assessment and hazard direction procedure. ( Moss,1999 ) Simple linguistic communication and direct oppugning including communicating and in depth treatment with carers could be a manner to get the better of this trouble. Higher degrees of nursing observation may besides be utile, non merely in guarant ing a individual s safety on the ward but besides in giving critical information sing a individual s mental province ( Appleby,1999 ) ( Gibson, 2007 ) highlighted some cardinal factors that nurses without specialist preparation may happen complicate effectual appraisal and intercession The two chief factors that affect mental wellness nurses are: rational deformation, which may ensue from cognitive shortages in countries such as memory and concentration which can do comprehension and communicating of ideas and feelings hard ; and Cognitive decomposition, which can happen in state of affairss where the individual is overwhelmed by the anxiousness of the demands being placed on them, ensuing in an inability to soldierly ideas and bizarre behavior Communication is cardinal to doing a sound and accurate appraisal. It is estimated that upwards of 50 % of people with larning disablements have important communicating troubles ( Matson, 1998 ) A nurse demands to turn to the peculiar communicating demands of each person as each will change in their abilities, This is another point in which collaborative working becomes really of import as if the individual is involved with a acquisition disablements squad, that squad may be able to supply the nurse with accurate information about the degrees of a individual s communicating and how best to pull off these issues. Many of the jobs in relation to direction of people with larning disablement by mental wellness nurses relate to the deficiency of cognition accomplishments and preparation ( Lennox A ; Chaplin, 1995 ) . Evidence suggests that qualified nurses on a regular basis feel out of their deepness and unsupported when covering with this client group and observations in pattern indicate a certain sum of turning away tactics from mental wellness nurses when it comes to volunteering for the named nurse axial rotation which could be due to a deficiency of assurance in this country. The current pre-registration nurse instruction programme for mental wellness nurses was originally validated by the English National Board ( English National Board,2000 ) , and the course of study follows the Nursing and Midwifery Councils Fitness For Practice Guidelines ( United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting,1999 ) , which states that pupils set abouting pre-registration programmes must hold certain other fortes included. However, larning disablement, as either a practical or theoretical constituent of the subdivision programme, is non one of them. With authorities policy ( Department of Health, 2001 ) saying that people with larning disablements should wherever possible entree generic services, there would look to be the demand for a more specific and in-depth attack to larning disablement instruction for all pupils throughout their pre-registration instruction. Experiences from local preregistration nurse instruction show that presently nursing instruction provides a 12- month common foundation programme for nurses who intend to develop in all countries of nursing including Adult, Mental wellness, Midwifery, kid and learning disablement nursing. Although non required by the NM, Learning disablement theory is taught but arrangements in this country are non common. After common foundation period of preparation, pupil nurse instruction in mental wellness has little or no farther chances to derive learning disablement experience. Comparisons with larning disablements mental wellness can be made to both kid and adolescent mental wellness, every bit good as to older people s psychopathology in that they are both specialist groups with their ain issues and mental wellness nurses are expected to analyze these client groups in item during their subdivision preparation in order to go familiar with the complexnesss of this type of mental wellness nursing. As these countries are compulsory fortes in order to run into the demands of making as a mental wellness nurse ( English National Board, 2000 ) and, coupled with the authorities s policy for people with larning disablements to entree generic mental wellness services, it would look indispensable that mental wellness nurses address the forte of people who have larning disablements and extra mental wellness jobs during their pre-registration instruction as they do with other specific patient groups. Many senior mental wellness nurses have received no larning disablement preparation at all. This deficiency of preparation may ensue in jobs with communicating and apprehension, every bit good as negative attitudes toward people with learning disablement. On the impudent side, nurses in larning disablement have likewise limited preparation in the country of mental wellness, although there are freshly available post-registration classs. One such class gives an experient nurse from either ramify a six month endorsement to the other nursing subject which is backed up by 2 faculties of theory. Anecdotal grounds gained from talking to a mental wellness nurse who has late completed this class has shown that general nursing accomplishments that every nurse should be competent in upon making can be transferred across the board to other subdivisions of nursing. The feeling of this nurse is that presently, mental wellness mainstream services see merely those with mild or marginal learning disa blements coming into the service and the appraisal and intervention procedure for these people is non much different to that of non larning handicapped people. Currently specializer services provide the bulk of attention for the patients with more complex demands. ( Scior and Longo, 2005 ) In decision the grounds presented in this essay suggests a figure of issues that need to be addressed if mental wellness nurses are to run into the demands of their clients with a carbon monoxide morbid larning disablement efficaciously. There are: pre and Post enrollment preparation for mental wellness nurses, collaborative working between the mental wellness and larning disablement squads and proviso and entree to services. It seems that specializer larning disablement in-patient units with a mental wellness focal point offer a more positive experience for the patient than mainstream mental wellness units, and hence should be developed farther ( Scior and Longo, 2005 ) . However, realistically mainstream services are extremely likely to go on to supply attention for this group, if merely because of the resource restrictions in specializer services and the fact that 30 % of NHS trusts provide no specializer admittance installations ( Bailey A ; Cooper, 1997 ) . There seems a demand now for major alterations to be made to the constructions and daily patterns in these services. Such alterations should include enterprises to advance more positive attitudes and behavior towards persons with acquisition disablements through preparation and regular input from specializer larning disablements services. Closer attending must be paid to the demand to do information about diagnosing and interventions accessible, in media such as cusps utilizing simple linguistic communication pictures and audio information ( Forster et al, 2001 ) and the demand for stronger engagement of and co-operation with service users regular carers. Current pattern experience has shown nevertheless that in the most portion mental wellness services in this country merely seem to come into contact with patients who have a boundary line or mild learning disablement as there is a big supply of specializer beds. Currently merely in rare instances would mainstream mental wellness units be acknowledging a individual with terrible or profound acquisition disablements whereby little changes to pattern and movable nursing accomplishments would non be plenty to give that patient the best attention available. Referances Appleby L ( 1999 ) National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by Peoples with Mental Illness. Department of Health Bailey NM A ; Cooper SA ( 1997 ) The current proviso of specializer wellness services to people with larning disablements in England and Wales. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 41 52-9. Bouras, N. , Holt, G. A ; Gravestock, S. ( 1995 ) Community attention for people with larning disablements: shortages and future programs. Psychiatric bulletin, 19, 134-137. Day, K. ( 1988 ) Services for psychiatrically disordered mentally disabled grownups. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 14,19-25. Department of Health ( 2001 ) Valuing Peoples: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the twenty-first Century. The Stationery Office, London. Department of Health ( 1999 ) mental wellness: national service model, The Stationery Office, London. Department of Health ( 1992 ) Health Services for Peoples with Learning Disabilities ( Mental Handicap ) . HSG ( 92 ) 42. London: Department of Health. Disability Rights Commission ( 2006 ) Equal Treatment: Closing the Gap. Final Report of a Formal Investigation into Health Inequalities. DRC, London. Drake, R E, 2007. Double diagnosing of major mental unwellness and substance upset: An overview. New Directions for Mental Health Services, [ Online ] . 50, 3-12. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/yd.23319915003/abstract [ Accessed 20 November 2010 ] . English National Board ( ENB ) ( 2000 ) Education in Focus. Strengthening Pre-registration Nursing and Midwifery Education.Curriculum Guidence. Part 13 of the Professional Register. ENB, London. Forster M, Wilkie B, Strydom A, Edwards C A ; Hall I ( 2001 ) Medication Information Leaflets. London: Elfrida Press. Foundation for people with larning disablements, valuing people support squad and national institute for mental wellness in England ( 2004 ) Green visible radiation: how good are your mental wellness services for people with larning disablements? A service betterment toolkit, London: Foundation for people with larning disablements Fraser, B. ( 1999 ) Psychopharmacology and people with learning disablement. Progresss in Psychiatric Treatment, 5, 471-477. Fraser W. A ; Nolan M. ( 1995 ) Psychiatric upsets in mental deceleration. In: Mental Health in Mental Retardation ; Recent Advances and Practices ( ed Bouras, N. ) , pp. 79-92. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Gibson, T, 2007. Peoples with larning disablements in mental wellness scenes. Mental Health Practice, 12/7, 30-33. Hardy S, Chaplin E, Woodward P ( 2007 ) Mental Health Nursing of Adults with Learning Disabilities. Royal College of Nursing, London. Hardy S, Woodward P, Woolard P et Al ( 2006 ) Meeting the Health Needs of People with Learning Disabilities. Royal College of Nursing, London. Hassiotis A, Strydom A, Hall I et al ( 2008 ) Psychiatric morbidity and societal operation among grownups with marginal intelligence life in private families. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 52, 2, 95-1-6. Krose B. , Dewhurst D. A ; Holmes G. ( 2000 ) Diagnosis and drugs: aid or hindrance when people with larning disablements have psychological jobs? British Journal of Learning Disabilities 29, 26-33. Lennox, N. A ; Chaplin, R. H. ( 1995 ) . Intellectual disablement: the positions of psychiatric trainees. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 29, 632-637. Matson, JL. and Bamburg, J. dependability of the appraisal of double diagnosing ( ADD ) , research in developmental disablements 20,89-95 Mencap ( 2007 ) Death by Indifference. Mencap, London. Moss S. ( 1999 ) Appraisal of mental wellness jobs. Tizard Learning Disability Review 42, 14-19. Government of England ( 1983 ) The Mental Health Act. Stationary Office, London. Nirje, B. ( 1976 ) The standardization rule and its human direction deductions. In Normalisation, Social Integration and Community Services ( eds R. J. Flynn A ; K. E. Nitsch ) . Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. Pollard, KC, 2004. Collaborative acquisition for collaborative working? Initial findings from a longitudinal survey of wellness and societal attention pupils. Health A ; Social Care in the Community, 12,4, 346-
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Old ACT Scores How to Get and Use Them SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Did you graduate from college years ago and now a prospective employer is asking for your ACT scores? Or perhaps you took time off after high school and now have to send your ACT scores to colleges. In either case, you'll need to know how to access your old ACT scores. In this article, I'll explain how to get and use old ACT scores.I'll walk you through the process of retrieving old scores and sending score reports for any ACT tests you took long ago. Why Would You Need Old ACT Scores? Believe it or not, some employers do request standardized test scores.Most employers who look at old ACT scores arein the investment banking and consulting industries. Education and tutoring companies might also ask for your ACT scores, especially if you're applying for a job in the fun-filled world of test prep. In addition, if you took time off between high school and college, or if you left college and are now reapplying to schools, you might need to send ACT score reports to the schools you're applying to. In this case, you'll need to look at each school's website to verify whether or not you need your old ACT scores. In general, standardized test scores are not required if you graduated from high school more than five years ago. How Do You Get an Old ACT Score? There are a few ways to get your old ACT scores depending on when you took the test. If You Tested in Spring 2008 or Later ACT scores are available online from spring 2008 to the present.To view your scores online, you must have anACT account. If you registered online when you originally took the test, you already have an account and can simply log in to access your scores. If you don't have an online account, you can create one. However, you'll need to know your ACT ID number in order to access your scores. You can find your ACT ID number on your admission ticket and official ACT score report, which was sent to the high school and colleges you requested. It's an eight-digit number that begins with a dash. If you can't find your ACT ID, call ACT, Inc. to get it.Prepare as much identifying information as possible to help the agents locate your ID; this includes the following: Your full name Your test date Your home address (when you tested) Your birth date The phone number for ACT, Inc. is 319-337-1270. If You Tested Before Spring 2008 If you tested before the spring of 2008, you can't get your scores online. However, ACT, Inc. can use microfiche to find scores from as far back as the fall of 1966.If you tested before the spring of 2008, call ACT, Inc. at the number above to try to locate your scores. Again, have as much identifying information as possible on hand to help the agent find your score. You should know your test date (at least the year) and your address at the time. How to Send an ACT Score Report for an Old Test ACT scores are archived for tests taken before September 1, 2015.If a score is archived, it's not in the active file. There's anadditional $24 fee for finding and sending archived ACT score reports. Additionally, report requests for archived scores take an additional working day to process. We look at the different types of ACT score reports and required fees in more detail below. Fees for Sending ACT Score Reports As you might've guessed, fees are unfortunately higher if you're trying to send old ACT scores. Regular Reports A regular score report is always processed within one week after your request is received. ACT, Inc. delivers reports to colleges and agencies you've selected based on their preferred schedule, which is typically at least every two weeks. ACT score reports for tests taken after September 1, 2015, cost $13 per test date per report, while score reports for tests taken before September 1 cost $37 per test date per report (including a non-refundable $24 archived scores fee). Priority Reports Priority reports are typically processed within two working days after ACT, Inc. gets your request, and are delivered three to four business days later. Keep in mind that you can only send priority reports to locations within the US. Also, note that colleges that only receive reports electronically might not view priority reports any faster than they would regular ones. Priority reports for tests taken after September 1, 2015, cost $16.50 per test date per report, while priority reports for tests takenbefore September 1 cost $40.50 per test date per report (again, this includes a $24 archived scores fee). ACT Score Report Ordering Options Now that you know what types of ACT score reports you can order, how do you actually go about ordering them? You have a few options when it comes to ordering old ACT scores. Online You can make an online request for score reports through your ACT web account (which you can create if you don't have one). Note that you must pay by valid credit card. By Mail To order ACT score reports by mail, send a letter of request to ACT, Inc. at the following address: ACT Customer Care- Score Reports PO Box 451 Iowa City, IA 52243-0451 USA Your letter must include all the following information: Your full name Your fullname at the time you registered for or took the ACT (if different) Your current mailing address Your home address at the time you registered for or took the ACT (if different) Your ACT ID number Your date of birth Your phone number Test date (month and year) for which you want scores reported (include test location if you tested more than once in the same month) Valid codes and names (with city and state) for the colleges and/or scholarship agencies to which you want to send your scores Be sure to specify whether you want regular or priority reports,and include your payment in the form of check or money order payable to ACT, Inc. By Phone This service is only for priority reports, and you must pay with a valid credit card. There is also an additional $15 fee for each score report request made by phone. To send ACT priority reports via phone, call ACT, Inc. at 319-337-1270. Try to write down all the information listed above so you can everything ready when you call. Can You Compare ACT Scores From Different Years? A specific ACT composite score should roughly reflect the same percentile score and skill level from year to year. For example, a composite score of 35 today should be equivalent to a 35 in 1995. Below is a chart showing ACT percentiles over the past six testing years: Year 99th %ile 75th %ile 50th %ile 25th %ile 1st %ile 2017 34-36 24 20 16 1-11 2016 34-36 24 20 16 1-10 2015 33-36 24 20 16 1-11 2014 33-36 24 20 16 1-11 2013 33-36 24 20 16 1-11 2012 33-36 24 20 17 1-11 *Note that some scores are estimates if the exact percentile was unavailable. As you can see, the score you need on the ACT in order to get in a certain percentile hasn't changed much in recent years.You still need around a 33-36 to get in the 99th percentile, and around 24 to get in the 75th percentile. There are some fluctuations, but these are all extremely small. What this means is that you can easily compare scores from different testing years without issue. For example, if you took the ACT in 2017 and your older brother took it in 2012, you don't have to do any complicated conversions to compare your scores- you can just look at whatever ACT percentile chart is available and use that as a reference. For more information on old ACT scores and percentiles, check out our guides to scores from 2011 to 2017and scores from 2008 to 2010. You might not be able to compare apples with oranges, but you can compare old ACT scores with current ones. What's Next? For more tips, read this article onsending ACT scores to colleges. Also, learn about ACT college codes and school codes for score reports. Curious about what a good ACT score is? Check out our guide to how to set an ACT goal score. If you're aiming for a top score, you'll definitely want to learn how to score a perfect 36. Finally, take a look at this post to learn who uses ACT scores. Disappointed with your ACT scores? Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.